Paean to NAC

Long before NAC saved the life of someone dear to me, it was a staple of my supplement stack. I notice that now N-Acetyl Cysteine has become my favorite supplement, the one I reach for 3 or 4 times a day when I pass the kitchen cabinet. It’s been such a gradual process, that I don’t remember the reasons that installed NAC in my subconscious as a reliable life extension aid. I’m taking this opportunity to review the literature.


In the 1980s and 1990s, the oxidative theory of aging reached its pinnacle, and anti-oxidant supplements were all the rage. Trials of anti-aging supplements failed time and again, and often they led to shorter lifespans of test animals. Aging of animals turns out to be more complicated than rusting of iron, and part of the complication is hormesis, and ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), particularly H2O2, are part of the signaling cascade that turns on hormetic protections.

One anti-oxidant that survived the massacre was glutathione. I continue to believe that glutathione promotes health, despite its close association with H2O2. Supplementing with N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is the commonly-recommended strategy for raising glutathione levels, and it seems to work. The best promise of NAC (through glutathione) is in preserving our mitochondria, which weaken and reduce in number as we age.

Chemistry

Glutathione is a tripeptide, a mini-protein consisting of the 3 amino acids glutamate, cysteine, and glycine.

Our metabolisms (like all eukaryotes) use REDOX reactions to store and deploy energy, because they are far more energy-dense than the covalent chemistry of organic molecules. The energy metabolism has waste products which must be neutralized so they don’t latch on to delicate organic molecules and damage them. There are various toxic waste products (ROS), and various pathways for reducing them. The last stage is always H2O2, which must be neutralized to water. This is the primary job of glutathione. (Also catalase.) Unlike catalase, glutathione can perform diverse other detoxifying roles as well.

Glutathione acts like a rechargeable battery. Its reduced form (GSH) is available to detoxify H2O2, after which it exists as an oxidized form (GSSG), which must be “recharged”. GSSG is just two molecules of glutathione that are linked together by a disulfide bond, and a more complex protein called glutathione reductase comes along to separate the two molecules, recharging the battery. Another supplement, Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is also helpful in recycling GSSG back to its useful form, GSH. Cells sense the ratio of GSH to GSSG to determine if they are in trouble. If the ratio becomes too low, the cell turns on NFkB [ref], which, in turn, initiates an inflammation cascade. A healthy cell has GSH:GSSG in the ratio 100 to 1, but a severely stressed sell can have more GSSG than GSH. Low ratios GSH:GSSG ratios can send a cell down a senescence pathway, terminating in apoptosis.

Glutathione’s importance is underscored by its large concentrations in every cell in the body. Your average human cell is using glucose for fuel, but the cell has as much glutathione as glucose in the cytoplasm.

 

Glutathione levels normally decline with age. 

In addition to anti-oxidant activity, glutathione is now known to have many other roles, including DNA repair, protein synthesis, and chemical signaling. These functions may be even more important than detoxifying H2O2. Most important for slowing age-related degeneration, glutathione has anti-inflammatory effects [ref], especially in the lungs [ref], which may be why NAC has been helpful in protecting against COVID [ref] It is well-established that severe COVID depletes glutathione, especially in late stages involving a cytokine storm [ref].

Table 1 Functions of Glutathione

  1. Direct chemical neutralization of singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radicals
  2. Cofactor for several antioxidant enzymes
  3. Regeneration of vitamins C and E
  4. Neutralization of free radicals produced by Phase I liver metabolism of chemical toxins
  5. One of approximately 7 liver Phase II reactions, which conjugate the activated intermediates produced by Phase I to make them water soluble for excretion by the kidneys
  6. Transportation of mercury out of cells and the brain
  7. Regulation of cellular proliferation and apoptosis
  8. Vital to mitochondrial function and maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)

Table from J Pizzorno [2014]

Dietary Glutathione

Fruits and vegetables are a substantial source of dietary glutathione [ref], but bioavailability is low, so most of the body’s glutathione is home-made.

Can you just take glutathione pills? Yes, but they are expensive and poorly absorbed. Does supplementation with NAC really increase availability of glutathione where it is useful? Evidence is good [ref, ref, ref]. Just two years ago, I advised readers of this blog to eat glutathione, but I’m backing off from that suggestion now, because I think NAC supplementation is not just cheaper but more effective.

The rate-limiting step of glutathione synthesis does not appear to be the activity of either enzyme under normal conditions, but rather the provision of one of the amino acids (L-cysteine) making up the tripeptide. [ref]

Agricultural and industrial chemicals, ubiquitous in our environment, are not the primary cause of aging, but they cause severe symptoms for some, and may be degrading the metabolisms for all of us in subtle ways. Glyphosate has become impossible to avoid. Glyphosate, mercury, and other chemicals increase the body’s need for glutathione, as glutathione is essential to the body’s detox machinery. IBS, Crohn’s disease, and other inflammation syndromes increase the need for glutathione, and can potentially benefit from NAC supplementation.

What benefits of NAC have been documented in humans?

Best evidence is for preservation of the eyes with age. This is from an article on eye health and aging by BIll Sardi:

Numerous studies link glutathione with the prevention of cataracts, glaucoma, retinal disease and diabetic blindness. Here is a sampling of the evidence concerning glutathione and eye health.

Glutathione has been shown to detoxify the aqueous fluid of the inner eye [ref] and may help maintain adequate fluid outflow among glaucoma patients. [ref, ref]

Glutathione exists in unusually high concentrations in the lens and is essential to maintain its transparency. [ref] However, glutathione levels decline in the lens with advancing age; the decline is especially rapid prior to cataract formation. [ref]

NAC has been observed to have neuroprotective properties, but whether it lowers risk of dementia or PD is still not established [ref]. Emerging evidence suggests that NAC supplementation protects the brain in the event of ischemic stroke [ref]. Intravenous glutathione has been tried as a therapy for Parkinson’s disease with unimpressive results. Psychiatric applications are still under development. NAC has shown promise for treating addiction, AD, PD, autism, OCD, schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder [ref].

Infusion of NAC increased endurance in trained cyclists [ref].

Intravenous NAC is used in ERs for detoxification of acetaminophen. It is also used for heavy metals [ref, ref], chloroform, monoxide and other poisons. [ref]

Table 2 Diseases Associated with GSH Depletion

  • Neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich’s ataxia)
  • Pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma, and acute respiratory distress syndrome)
  • Immune diseases (HIV, autoimmune disease)
  • Cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, myocardial infarction, cholesterol oxidation)
  • Chronic age-related diseases (cataracts, macular degeneration, hearing impairment, and glaucoma)
  • Liver disease
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Aging process itself

Table from J Pizzorno [2014]

Old mice have half as much glutathione in their muscles, compared to young mice [ref]

Life extension in lab animals, including rodents

There are many studies in worms and flies demonstrating life extension via NAC. There is just one study in mice [ref], but it was so successful that I don’t know why it hasn’t been replicated. 24% increase in mean lifespan and 45% increase in maximal lifespan in the only arm of this Jackson Lab broad screening study that showed promise.

FDA regulation

Glutathione and NAC have both been readily available supplements, available without prescription for many years. NAC is preferred as a less expensive pathway to augmenting GSH levels within cells. Recently, NAC was reclassified as a prescription drug by FDA. There is no concern with safety, and the only reason offered by FDA is that NAC has been promoted as a hangover remedy after excess alcohol consumption. Since glutathione can detoxify alcohol breakdown products in the liver, NAC probably has some usefulness in this role. I believe the real motivation for making NAC harder to get is that it is useful in treating COVID, and there appears to be an agenda for suppressing inexpensive and effective treatments (chloroquine, ivermectin, vitamin D, zinc, quercetin) in favor of vaccination.


(Off-topic: If you’re interested in a comprehensive guide to the general principles and the subtleties treating COVID, I highly recommend this interview by Dr Darrell Demeo of Mumbai.)


The Bottom Line

The evidence for NAC as a life extension supplement is mostly indirect, but there are many good reasons to boost our glutathione levels, especially as we age, and especially in an age of ubiquitous chemical toxins.

83 thoughts on “Paean to NAC

  1. Josh,
    I am very well related to very good scientists and friends of mine (the Full Professors of Physiology Jose Viña, Juan Sastre, and Federico Pallardo, who have worked and published at best Science Journals and even collaborated to commercialize a drug-containing NAC and did excellent research with NAC for many years looking for its antioxidant healthy effect.

    However they have warned me that NAC is a double edge sword. There is a very small pharmacological range, and increasing NAC easily generates the opposite unhealthy effect. Therefore, I should be careful when taking it or recconmending it to others

    • Thanks for referring me to this study! I didn’t know about it and it looks very promising. A pilot study with low N, but improvements were remarkable, including inflammation and insulin sensitivity.

  2. NAC helped me overcome a thyroid condition that was triggered by iodine toxicosis. It has great tangential benefits obviously and both my wife and I take it every day.

    And per Gustavo’s warning: Meh… we were told the same about NMN in combination with Niacin. It all gets super confusing. In the end listen to your body and see what works for you.

  3. I’ve been taking NAC for years, but after reading your article, I’m doubling my intake from 1000 mg, as a starter. I’m 84, in excellent health as far as I know and attribute that largely to excellent articles such as yours and Dr, Mercola.

  4. A few months ago, I switched from supplementing with Glutathione to NAC. While restocking NAC I noticed a NAC shortage and a price increase here in Canada.

    • Stephan,
      Josh,

      I just want to remind you that many healthy substances are good for survival chances without decreasing the aging rate at all.

      This is the case for TOTAL cell antioxidants including GSH (and NAC).

      Same for metformin, melatonin, deprenyl etc

      I have direct experience with this of 41 years of research.

      Only rapamycin has demonstrated reproducible effects:

      A) Increasing BOTH mean and maximum life span.

      B) The above increases must be demonstrated OVER THOSE OF NORMAL LONGEVITY CONTROLS.

      (many non rigorous and/or cheater authors use short-lived controls, the ones in which many substances increase longevity, meankn nothing for aging. They are merely bringing partilly back to normal sub-longevity controls (equivalent to increase the “false” longevity of a group of humans living only a mean age of 50 years, to 60!,  whereas many human co trol untreated humans eeach 80..

      …using  drugs like deprenyl NAC, or whatever….

      I know fellows who maintain mice in illegal bad conditions, obtain mouse longevities of around 1,6-1,8 years only, and pretend to have increased “longevity” whereas my C57BL6 controls (syngenic!) Outlived all those supoosedly longer lived mice (our Aging Celll controls had 3.9 years max longevity…

      Best wishes,
      Gustavo

      • Did you see the case study of identical twins diagnosed with alzheimers? One took melatonin one didnt. A few years later the one without melatonin couldn’t even comprehend single words, the twin with melatonin was with far less degeneration.

        Pierpaoli gave it to an acquaintance who was diagnosed with Parkinson, the acquaintance diagnosed with Parkinson lived to 102 years and was relieved of parkinson symptoms(though this supposedly only benefits some types of parkinson not all.), also a fish study showed normal movement on fish with parkinson like condition supplemented with melatonin while the ones without melatonin had severe movement issues.

        Walter Pierpaoli himself is like 87 years old and seems to be cognitively and physically fit. Not exceptional yet but considering average lifespan is like 79 impressive that we can see at least two unrelated melatonin supplement users already showing significantly high lifespans. But of course more people are needed to see a result.

        Melatonin is highest during the age humans have lowest mortality, and CR maintains high melatonin production significantly delaying melatonin decrease in primates.

      • Gracias Gustavo, lei tu trabajo reciente. Un tema relacionado, hay dosis segura para los humanos de la Rapamicina, creo que no…Un cordial gracias desde Argentina.

        • Hace 5 años que dejé la rapamicina. En 2016 habia muy poca cosa publicada en humanos y poco concluyente. En raton habia bastante y sube longevidad (ITP triolicado NIA proyect 3 labs independent. pero curiosamente habia varios trabajos que tb veian efectos secundarios serios del farmaco entre los cuales recuerdo las cataratas (en ratón).!

          De todos modos para tomarla en humanos…yo no lo veo a pesar de los resultados espectaculates que tuvimos con ella en raton en Martinez-Cisuelo et al Exper. Gereontol. 2016 (100% reversion back to young levels of mitROSp and mtDNA fragments inserted inside nuclear genomic DNA!

          PERO EL EFECTO PUBLOCADO sobre longevidad maxima ES MENOR QUE EL DE LA CR.. RAPA SUBE LONGEVIDAD EN RATON UN 12% SOLO (Harrison et al 2009) mientras que el efecto de CR (que es tb via mTOR pero tb via otras señales y abarca más target genes del Aging Program (Barja Exp Gerontol. 2019; Y Barja Biogerontology 2008) llega hastael 40% de aumento de mlsp!

          Asi pues, como le dije a Josh hace un par de años: di el efecto esperable de la rapa en H.s. es solo 1/4 del de la CR y además el fármaco tiene efectos secundarios serios (como siempre psas…) que No tiene la CR, entonces porqué te vas a tomar esa cosa?

          Lo de siempre: rapa es muy interesante pero para darsela a los animales de experimentacion. No para humanos (menor efecto y mucho riesgo serio? Deja la rapa y haz CR o EOD..!

          • Gracias, me parecio siempre una sustancia de experimentacion mas que de consumo, pero tu mencion a la inhibicion mTor me hizo recordar que tu estudiaste tambien la funcion radioprotectora de la fisetina y otros flavonoides y, si bien no hubo mucha “movida” sobre ella, ultimamente ha vuelto el interes de su aplicacion senolitica al ámbito de la obtención de una sana longevidad; ¿has estado trabajando sobre su aplicación clínica o has tenido conocimiento sobre su “vuelta” al ruedo en el ámbito de las moléculas que protegen de la neurodegeneración, neuroinflamación, etc.? Saludos cordiales para ti y tu equipo de excelencia.

          • I know that fisetin is one of the most effective senolytics known according to what I reviewed published updated to March 2019.

            But I never worked with thid substance present, if I remember well, in apples!

  5. Based on the idiocy of the FDA, I have bought 2 cases of NAC for my own use. On a related topic, how do you feel about the efficacy of oral reduced glutathione?

    • I would go further and say that if you are a meat eater, you don’t even need the cysteine. In most cases glycine, which is lacking in the diet of almost all, is the limiting factor for glutathione synthesis.

    • I would go further and say if you eat meat, you don’t even need the cysteine. Glycine, which is lacking in the diet of most, is the limiting factor for glutathione synthesis.

      • I’ve tried megadosing with glycine (20g pr day) but caused abnormal enlargement of my prostate gland, so I had to discontinue, unfortunately

        • That’s interesting! Sorry to hear that. Most people who megadose Glycine have issues eventually. But they’re mainly gut or skin related. I’ve settled back to a teaspoon full in the evening (4-5g). Great for sleep, and hopefully keeping my glutathione and collagen levels topped up.

  6. Hi Josh,
    I am a respiratory therapist and I worked in Illinois, Florida and Texas during the plandemic and can tell you NAC wasn’t being utilized for C19. Some of these facilities were research facilities.

  7. BTW I also wanted to remind everyone that you can also make eye drops very easily by mixing glutathione with saline solution or distilled water. We use it regularly and it seems to help in slowing down presbyopia. Just don’t add any MSM as for some reason or it breaks up the sulfur and the solution starts to smell very bad :-))

  8. The evidence of Non Randomness in age span after maturity is evidence of an aging program.

    The evidence of Antagonistic Pleiotropy is evidence of an Aging Gene network

  9. Thank you for the valuable information, Josh! I’ve been taking NAC along with glycine, which I believe you informed us two years ago could limit the amount of GSH produced if we are deficient, since the glycine seems to have a somnorific effect that helps me resume sleep those nights when I have difficulty doing so. I take them on an empty stomach (in the middle of the night) and hope others might find it as helpful for insomnia as I do.

  10. I’ve heard that melatonin stimulates production of multiple endogenous antioxidants including glutathione.(I’ve also heard it stimulates telomerase, promotes some positive hormone release while inhibiting some negative hormone release.)

    Walter Pierpaoli suggested that the Pineal Gland was the conductor of the aging program, and that melatonin was a vital part of that.

    I do agree the NAC reclassification could have to do with COVID, one of the biggest bullet points for me is that despite low vitamin D status being linked with worse COVID outcomes in several studies, iirc, most of the msm casts doubts on the usefulness of vitamin D for COVID. Why do that, and why so concerted an effort?

    As for NAC reclassification, I just hope life extension foundation which has long fought the FDA’s pro drug pro killing american stance, still sells NAC. But maybe the law won’t allow them, not sure how the regulation works and what they can or cannot do without breaking the law.

    The youtuber Michael Lustgarten in this video
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XaxY7LpuSFo
    discussed studies showing that glycine + nac essentially reversed the age related decline in glutathione levels.

  11. “There are many studies in worms and flies demonstrating life extension via NAC. There is just one study in mice [ref], but it was so successful that I don’t know why it hasn’t been replicated. 24% increase in mean lifespan and 45% increase in maximal lifespan in the only arm of this Jackson Lab broad screening study that showed promise.”

    Hi Josh,

    Good summary of NAC. While NAC is certainly very important and promising I don’t agree on the life span study on mice being so successful. An important point worth mentioning is that the life span extension appears to have been caused by the NAC causing dietary restriction rather than necessarily having direct life span extending effects. Perhaps the NAC in the quantities used was so unpalatable that the mice ate less. Here is the quote from the abstract:

    “Only male UM-HET3 mice receiving N-acetyl-L-cysteine had significantly increased life span, and this may have been due to treatment-related inadvertent diet restriction.”

  12. You should propose NAC to the Mouse ITP project. You could probably use this blog post as the basis for the application. It could be very interesting.

  13. As I waded deeper into your review here I wondered whether it would have any possible bearing on the severe rheumatoid arthritis that has plagued me since 2018. And, sure enough, it does. Thanks also to the many commenters. I would love to get my hands on some good Gly+NAC! My Johns-Hopkins-educated rheumatologist has had me try everything else…

  14. Can someone explain, why none of the subjects in the trials reported adverse effects?

    It has previously been reported that a dosage above 1.2g a day can cause nausea,
    stomachache and diarrhea. In that perspective, 9g of NAC daily seems like an awful lot.

  15. Thanks, Josh. Any suggested brands & dosage? I’m 73 & on no meds & feel more like 40 except time goes too quickly. Wouldn’t it be great if we could make time feel longer?

    • Again, why don’t you look at liposomal formulations? Great carrier mechanism. Increases bioavailability for curcuminoids by a factor of 46. Available for Glutathione as well to supplement directly…

        • Luoosones are excellent to bring non ?lioosoluble substances to the cytosk of cells.
          But precisely this is the reason why mRNA based vaccines are so dangerous. They are nearby and easily enter the nucleus through the nucleoporins an once insidd the nucleus they are retrotranscribed (e.g., by LINEs) back to small DNAs. These are integrated into nuclear DNA through retreteansoosons and are inserted into all chronosome arms DNA and 28 fold more on genes The likely result is accelerated aging includin higher incidence of cancer and all the other degenerative diseases.
          On top of this use of an experimental therapy with mRNA which has never been done and without the legally comoulsory performance of mid- and long-term clinical studies before applying this extŕemely dangerous therapy to 1,000 million western people…!!! whereas the Chinese 3 vaccines ara all protein based attenuated virus classical vaccines which do not have such a serious risk.
          Who wants to risk that around half the USA and EU western populations risk to suffer accelerated aging due to their injection with mRNA vaccines whereas the Germans (Angela Merkcel bought Sputnik from Russia,). Russian (“intermediate” adenovirus non mRNA vaccines) and Chinese (3 attenuated virus classical non so risky vaccines) are free from it.

          Who accepts possible selective loss of 50% populations only in west countries?

          Do you imagine such a new world dominated no doubt by the non-westerns?

          In my opinion the West os already in decay…And they add to this the risky mRNA vaccines?

          And private compsnies have waiting in line up to 30 new mRNA -based drugs…bug bussiness. And they will say clinical assays on them are not needed for them because they have been assayed on this planetary wide vaccination.
          ….

          We are in theyr hands unless we all say z?No! To them.

          Gustavo

          • Gustavo, do you have any scientific references to back up your claims, that the Pfizer/BionTech SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine would potentially cause those side effects?

            Everything I’ve read so far concludes, that there is no feasible means by which an mRNA vaccine could end up in the nucleus of a cell, nor prime a reverse transcription reaction, nor give you a mitochondrial disease.

          • Gustavo Barja. Professor of Physiology (UCM Univ. Madrid, Spain) and Academic of RANF (The Royal National Spanish Academy of Pharmacy), and head of the LRGM Research Group composed by five Professors from Seville, Lleida & Madrid Universities on said:

            Please see this most interesting PNAS article showing that SARS-COV-” mRNA is retro transcribed using LINE-1 (and others) and flanked TES and integrates into the nuclear DNA of the vaccinated people. These are the links:

            https://www.pnas.org/content/118/21/e2105968118

            https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/05/further-evidence-offered-claim-genes-pandemic-coronavirus-can-integrate-human-dna

            Please see also this recent Review:
            -“Worse Than the Disease? Reviewing Some Possible Unintended Consequences of the mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19. ” by Stephanie Seneff1 and Greg Nigh2
            1Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge MA, 02139, USA, There arte a lot of citations inside this review. Las pages 63 to 64 deal with integration of mRNA vaccines through retrotransposition plus insertion TE helped into genomic DNA.

            The most interesting PNAS article showing that mRNA in vaccines (Moderna and Pfizer) is retro transcribed using LINE-1 and flanked TES and integrates into the nuclear DNA of the vaccinated people. These are the links:

            https://www.pnas.org/content/118/21/e2105968118

            https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/05/further-evidence-offered-claim-genes-pandemic-coronavirus-can-integrate-human-dna

            I think you should be interested in this paper. In spite of some hesitations (not in the PNAS article) I think that if PNAS (also reported in Science journal) publishes this is because they fear the risk of mRNAvacines (Pfizer and Moderna) induced cancer and accelerated aging on the medium and long term of vaccinated people (then all the degenerative diseases) on the medium/long term
            is too high. It is the Pharmaceutical Companies pretending to sell a drug (including the mRNA vaccines inserted into liposomes to bring it to the interior of the cell) who should who should demonstrate before reasonable doubt that their vaccine does not damage people, before the Ministry of Health allows selling it and injecting it to the common people of all West countries (who are not aware of this danger). In this case it seems that this has not been properly done according to enforcing laws of each Country….

            We (Barja et al. group at Madrid UCM and cols. from UCN and Valencia Univ.), as well as that of Andreas Ivessa New York, USA) have independently demonstrated that this kind of thing is the basis of mitROS induced aging (see attache papers).

            Please see just as an example that we found that the normal mechanism of mitochondrial free radical induced aging in mammals (and east, Andreas Ivessa) does not occur through effects of mtDNA mutations/deletions on mitochondrial function due to high threshold effects. Instead is the insertion of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA during aging in somatic tissues and organs. (see papers attached).

            Don’t inject mRNA vaccines encapsulated inside liposomes (Moderna and Pfizer), most especially to your young adult relatives or children because those pieces enter cells being liposome encapsulated (“nanoparticle lipids) which fuse with plasma cellular membranes getting into the cytosol were not only translate to viral protein at cytosolic ribosomes but can enter the nucleus through the nature-designed for mRNA transfer nuclear pores and once inside the nucleus can retro-transcribe through LINE-1, and insert into the nuclear DNA helped by nondisjunction DNA repair and distribute to all chromosomal arms (like it normally occurs during aging to mtDNA fragments coming form ROS-producing mitochondria) helped by flanking disseminating throughout the DNA of all human chromosomes promoting cancer and aging, and thus all the other degenerative diseases (Barja Exper. Gerontol. 2019; as well as Science note and PNAS USA recent article insertion of covi-2 nucleic acid derived in human genome:

            Science note:
            https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/05/further-evidence-offered-claim-genes-pandemic-coronavirus-can-integrate-human-dna

            PNAS USA recent article:
            https://www.pnas.org/content/118/21/e2105968118

            In case of your old family people give them Vitamin D3+vitamin K2+Mg++, which is much more effective than the vaccine to increase their vitD-deficient-induced immune system depression, and it is totally safe and without side effects. The Definition of “Vitamin” means that at sometime in our ancestors evolutionary line, we lost the capacity for their synthesis by random mutation during evolution but we need them to have normal health (see Jeff Bowles book attached).

            Of course vitamins and minerals cannot be patented; that is the problem with them from more than 100 years ago..But the health of earth people should be the priority not making business with synthetic drugs with almost zero likelihood of being innocuous in the organism due to our little knowledge on its functioning.

            Instead, hiding vitamins and minerals from the people induces most cases of human disease of different kinds, which can then be treated with those synthetic drugs with serious side effects, allowing Big Pharmaceutical Industries to make big business with previously stimulated illness most of which would be non-existent would the vitamins and minerals be given to the people in the fiorst plñace in the right amounts to avoid their deficiency (Jeff Bowles books attached.) This second procedure is obviously the reverse of the Hypocrates swaring that all medical doctors must do before being allowed to enter medical practice ans¡d is profoundly amoral and un-ethic . In the case of the covid-2 recent pilot study at cordonba has shown the strong capacity of vitamin D supplementation to protect form covid-2 induiced death even when given too late (at the ICU) (Jeff Bowles Covid-vitaminD Book, mpage 248 and following ones, attahed)

            not be sacrificed to bussiness by Big Pharma monstruously.)

            See doses and why below (my explanation email to my family and friends).

            https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/05/further-evidence-offered-claim-genes-pandemic-coronavirus-can-integrate-human-dna

            —– Original Message —–
            From: GUSTAVO BARJA DE QUIROGA LOSADA
            To: Mª Carmen
            CC: Sent: Sat, Mar 27, 2021 6:15 am
            Subject: covid y VitD3 + VITK2 + MAGNESIO! (OJO!, si tomas vitD3 a 6000 IU/dia tras el 2º plato con grasa animal (lo que tu tomes normalmente, no cambies nada) durante más de 2 meses, tienes que tomar también vitamina K2 y Magnesio. Y si no quieres tomar vitamina K2 o magnesio, entonces no tomes ninguna de las tres! (o tomas las trés cosas, o ninguna. Si lo haces así, entonces OJO!, te pondrás enfermo!…abajo se explica porqué esto: porque la vitaD3 a dosis adecuadas por una regulación fisiológica en el organismo baja la vitamina K2 y el magnesio corporal…)
            Hello family & friends,

            This (1 + 2 + 3 ) is what in principle (perhaps too cautious) you would have to take every day but BEWARE! after the second course of the strongest meal of the day with the “after the 2nd course, I mean D3, and K2 . You can take magnesium at any time because it is water soluble.

            1) Vitamin D3: 6,000 IU per day. You can buy it in pharmacies (NEEDS PRESCRIPTION BUT USUALLY THEY GIVE IT TO YOU WITHOUTY IT; AN ALTERNATIVE IS TO BUY IT AT AN HERBALIST. The one I take is the Kern Pharma brand of 2,000 IU/ml (the brand does not matter) that brings a syringe (without a needle) of insulin (to dose babies). With the syringe you take from the bottle what you want (6,000IU would be 3 full syringes , since each syringe has 1 ml in volume) and you put it in a soup spoon and drink it AFTER THE SECOND DISH strong, fatty (STEAK etc, BACON, LENTILS WITH SAUSAGE, IT IS BEST TO HAVE FAT ). BECAUSE VITAMINS DYK (SAME AS “vitamin E” AND “vitamin A” (BE CAREFUL, vitamin A is toxic in high doses! ) ARE THE 4 LIPOSOLUBLE VITAMINS (VITD, VITE, VITK and VITA) THAT ARE NOT SOLUBLE IN WATER BUT IN FAT (THAT ‘S WHY IF YOU TAKE THEM BETWEEN HOURS, MOST OF THE VITAMIN WILL NOT BE ABSORBED AND IT GOES OUT THROUGH THE ANUS AND THE TOILET …. DOWN!).

            Note.- 50% of those over 65 years in Spain are deficient in vitamin D . Vitamin D is really a hormone that opens/closes around 300 gene activities. The many gene products of these genes include many protective proteins which finally increase immunity (lymphocyte, neutrophiles, macrophages, antibodies, Tc (T cytotoxic lymphocytes) , Th (T helper lymphocytes), NK (natural killer cells that eliminate cancer cells)s etc. The result is that if you are vitamin D deficient you have Immunodepression!!! so that, in that weak state, many different bacterial or viral agents (including covid2) will kill you whereas they do not do it to people that has normal levels of vitamin D. This is one reason why covid2 does not affect most young adults but it seriously affect many old people And if you are vitamin D deficient (like my brother-in-law Jose, who did not take animal fats in the diet because of his heart stent and the cardiologist doctor gave him statins and forbade him to eat animal fats (and maybe that’s why he died, or surely contributed to it …) … Inside the animals fats is precisely where the vitamin D is!!!! So you take defatted mild, do not take butter, “tocino” etc and this contributes also to your vitamin D deficiency together to the long autumn-winter-spring stay indoors away from the sun and covered with clothes and the angle of incidence of sun´s rays is too acute (does not heat your skin even if you expose it to the sun).

            And because of the “troubled cholesterol issue”: WATCH JORDI ÉVOLE’S SHOW, “SAVED ” LAST YEAR THAT EXPLAINED IT. THAT WERE SPREADED 8 OF THE 10! US DOCTORS WHO WERE ON THE COMMITTEE THAT DROPPED THE THRESHOLD LEVEL FOR CHOLESTEROL FROM 250 TO 200 … SO MILLION MORE PEOPLE WOULD HAVE TO TAKE WHY THAT STATINES-WHICH HAVE A LOT OF SIDE EFFECTS- AND FAMILY CHOLESTEROL ONLY A VERY REDUCED% OF THE POPULATION HAS IT. THEY EVEN GIVEN A NOBEL PRIZE TO TWO INDIVIDUALS TO JUSTIFY THAT CHILDHOOD! (and THE DOCTORS PRESCRIBE statins BUT MANY OF THEM DO NOT TAKE THEM !!!!) … people drink skim milk, avoid the bacon etc and discharge D3 and converts into vitamin D deficient and then into (cardiologist Drs-created) immunodeficiency! Thew result is much more worse than what they tried to improve (atherosclerosis), because most atherosclerosis is NOT due to cholesterol itself deposition in the inner arterial walls but to the aging process, and because cholesterol does not deposit through macrophage-induced foam cell formation if is not previously oxidized, which is precisely prevented with vitamin C and E and other antioxidants (induced at gene level by vit D) and vitamin D supplementation… .With the nonsense without reasoning typical mantra about the “Sun of Spain “circulates the hoax that it is not necessary to take vitamin D, but it is totally false because it is evident that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Spanish old populations.

            And on the beach they recommend creams with an anti UV screen (which prevents UV from forming vitamin D in the skin! …) It is totally unhealthy due to the so many diseases appearing when there is vitamin D deficiency … They certainly want people to get sick and then sell them the crap of drugs. That is the plain truth. If not, how can it be explained that they continue to sell in Spain the toxic and procarcinogenic paracetamol crap (in the USA they have already changed years ago and have returned to aspirin which is fucking awesome) … which is the widely used drug here without stopping Drs. For a moment to think it twice…(They behave like soldiers obeying their generals the Big Pharma-bribed Big Drs., and this allows them to get used with time not to think by themselves: As Lamarck showed centuries ago the use of an organ -the brain in this case- increases it functionality whereas the disuse atrophies it.) . In the case of aspirin (one of the few natural drugs sold at pharmacies, they blamed it for stomach ulcers but it was something else and Helicobacter pylori, and the Paracetamol Big Pharma beat Bayer … (that was in the 70s; and I used paracetamol in the laboratory to oxidatively destroy the cell membranes of my rat tissues! …).

            In Norway there is almost no sun most months around the year, but there is almost no vitamin D deficiency in the population because as there is no sun , most Norwegians do take vitamin D! (that is, it is ALL the reverse of WHAT THEY SAY HERE!).

            2) Vitamin K2 (M7 preferably). You can take the RDA-the recommended dietary allowance amount (which is defined “per day” for all nutrients in all countries) You buy it at a good Herbalist (or ” Parapharmacy “), you ask him about how much is the RDA for vitamin K2 (or just look at it yourself where it is compulsorily labelled in the bottle) and if they don’t have it, you order it. Eye!!! It is very important, it is K2, not k 1 O “K” (K1 does not work, it is another, which is that of coagulation , K2 does NOT) ( Doctors, neither the Spanish nor the Americans do not even know that K2 exists !! !! (ignorance, not a plot!) ( the plot is undoubtedly of the US medical super-bosses who are bribed by Big Pharma as everybody in the area knows well from many decades ago… ) The K2 does not even appear on the computer of any pharmaceutical company in Spain nor at USA either, and the soldier medical doctors absolutely ignore its existence (look out! Please do not confuse vitamin K2 with vitamin K (this last one is the one involved in the blood coagulation process)!!!. Vitamin K2 was kidnapped to soldier medical Drs. In order to be sure that it is not given to patients, so that the objective of creating a fake hypervitaminosis D (which does not exist) is fuilfilled. If someone takes “large” (really normal) doses of vitamin D3 but does not take vitK2 (and Mg++), rhen in a couple of months this person gets ill and that is labelled as “hypervitaminosis D”. False, that hipervitaminosis does not exist at all!, You get ill because taking such amount of vitamin D, your body regulatory systems decrease vita K2 and Mg++ body reservoirs and your illness id provoked by the lack of enough vita K2 and Mg++ in themselves, not by the increase in vitD3 in itself!

            Within K2 there are several ways. The best is the M7 form (buy that) because it is the one with the highest bioavailability (that is, with the same amount ingested, more K2 will reach the internal organs).

            3) Magnesium. 375mg capsules (one a day at the time you want). You buy it at the Herbalist too. I take the brand Sotya (Magnesium Chelate). 80% of the population in the West is deficient in magnesium because it is depleted in the soils where the plants are grown. And if you are deficient you need at least 1 year to correct it! Because BEWARE! 99% of the magnesium is in the internal organs and only 1% is in the blood. The doctor, if you happen to measure the magnesium in your blood, because that is worthless because he is measuring only 1% of the body’s magnesium. The only one The way to know what your degree of magnesium deficiency is is to do a tissue biopsy ( muscle for example) and I do NOT advise it .. ..

            AND THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IS THAT YOU DO NOT EVEN THINK OF TAKING VITAMIN D3 MORE THAN TWO MONTHS WITHOUT TAKING K2 AND MAGNESIUM !!! . IF YOU DO THAT, THEN YOU CAN GET SICK FOR SURE! WITH WHAT THE DOCTORS (SOME IGNORANT, EVIL THEIR BOSSES) CALL ” HYPERVITAMINOSIS D SYNDROME”, BUT There is no such thing. What happens is that if you take vitamin D chronically, then (interactions) you lower your K2 and magnesium and the syndrome that gives you is a syndrome of K2 AND MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY (NOT THE SUPPOSED HYPERVITAMINOSIS D, THAT I REPEAT YOU DOES NOT EXIST !

            EITHER, OR YOU TAKE ALL 3: (VITAMIN D + VITAMIN K2 + Magnesium), or DO NOT take ANYTHING . But taking chronic vitamin D3 at the dose I tell you WITHOUT TAKING K2 AND without taking MAGNESIUM IS ALMOST SUICIDAL!

            I STILL HAVE TO STUDY THE DOSES THAT HAVE BEEN EFFECTIVE AGAINST COVID IN THE CORDOBA STUDY (described in pages 248 on of Jeff Bowles book on Ciovid2 and vitamin D), AND THOSE THAT WILL BE TESTED IN THE TEN OF SOCIAL SECURITY HOSPITALS NOW IN ALL SPAIN. ALMOST SURE THEY WILL BE HIGHER THAN WHAT I HAVE TOLD YOU IN THIS EMAIL. OR SO YOU DON’T BE AWESOME (AS ALWAYS) IF WITHIN A FEW DAYS I TELL YOU THAT FOR COVID IT IS BETTER TO RAISE THE DOSE OF VITAMIN D3 ETC ABOVE WHAT I HAVE PUT YOU HERE. ATTENTION !, THE 3 DOSES THAT I INDICATE YOU ARE TO PROTECT YOURSELF IN GENERAL , PROBABLY THEY ARE NOT THE OPTIMAL TO REINFORCE AGAINST A PANDEMIC SUCH AS COVID

            AND THAT’S IT. I HAVE WRITTEN IT AS SHORTEST AS POSSIBLE. IF YOU DON’T WANT / YOU CAN READ SO MUCH, SEE ONLY THE VIOLET COLOR AND DO IT.

            Gustavo

          • Good news!
            Now the pilot study in covid patients at Cordoba (Spain) that were strongñy protected by 25 OH vitamin D even at ICU (on the doors to die!) has been demonstrated by multidisciplinary collaborative teams including R. BOILLON from Dept. Chronic diseases and Metabomism Leuve (Belgium) in 930 admited at ICU covid-19 infected patients at Hospital del Mar , Barcelona Spain:

            https://europepmc.org/article/ppr/ppr280433 
            Nogues Xavier et al. …..and Garcia-Giralt N.
            atalia. Calcifediol treatment and COVID-29-related outcomes. J. of Clinical Endocrinol. and Metabolism. Accepted Manyscript.
            Preprint from SSRN, 22 Jan 2021
            DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3771318 PPR: PPR280433 

        • Josh,

          I know from long ago (my three tears long aging experiment in 220 frogs in 1988) that GSH is inducible. 

          When I inhibited urreversibly catalase with aminotriazol the frog nuclear aging program reacted to this increasing levels of GSH, SOD, etc by 100% and GSH-reductase enzyme activity by 1,000 % !!!! in 4 of the 4 studied organs (brain, liver, kidney, and lung). 

          And these treated animals with these reactive antioxidant inductions increased their MEAN life span by 100%, and MAXIMUMilife span did not change at all.

          I beleive this experiment is the first described case of hormesis, although I did not coin the name.

          I remind you about this because:

          If the body can increase GSH when needed do to higher than normal stress, is it really necessary to take oral GSH supplements?

          Gustavo

          • There is definitely too much weight placed on ‘hormesis’ with regards to aging. If hormesis really had anything to do with aging then exercise would be far more effective (against aging) than it is (not very). Most likely it is similar to how you describe glutathione upregulation in frogs starved of catalase – a way of making you stronger, without any effect on the progression of aging. It is a bit like having a coronary bypass – you did nothing against atherosclerosis – you just helped yourself survive it by providing another, unblocked blood connection.

          • Gustavo Barja. Professor of Physiology (UCM Univ. Madrid, Spain) and Academic of RANF (The Royal National Spanish Academy of Pharmacy), and head of the LRGM Research Group composed by five Professors from Seville, Lleida & Madrid Universities on said:

            Mark I not only agree with you.
            When I poblished my frogs papers I piut it clerarlñy that mean lsp duplicated but maximum one did not move a single month! it was exacty the same in controls and exp¡erimentals= 6 years, which was also the one in the wild (because we cut the finger to 600 wild frogs and determined their age

            Concerning hormesis papers years after my observation is that people is not so honest and seay they increased “longevity ” but mostb times it is mean not maximum…
            For me increasing only the mean and not the maximum does not have anything to do with delaying aging
            That is the big confusion against which I had to fight here dioctors common people etc the common misudert¡standin that “now people lives much longer than before and old are younger bl bla bkla all false

            what happend in Spain (life expectancy increasing from 40 to 80 in XXth century is mainly decrease in infant mot¡rtality andn most of the rest is increased hygiene, then smallm additionds m¡by antibiotics asnd many other factors
            But aging has not been delayed a single second. How could it be if we still are discussing what causes it? It would be a hyper-chance to get it done without konwing the mechanism
            I tried to convince Josh in the past about it but unsus¡ceesfulloy. He still beleived in mean life span increas (better health protection from early death heart attack etc but if you survive at 85 you are really old..

            Another important issue is that to be certain a teatment decreases the aging rate it should demonstrate (in addition to it causing increase in both mean and maximum longevity in at nleast n=40 mammals per group to have statistical power, and excellent barrier conditions. At my own departtment there are peole that say do “aging Experiments” with mice in an ilgeal room with only a fan like in old bars at Dictator Franco´s time. Of course the controls of these dirty experiments (published at nice IF USA journals that do not know what stuff are they publishing!) have a maximum longevity of 2 years or less (swiss nonsyngeniunc mice!) and the exdperimentals supposedly with increasied lifespan had 2,3 years of mlsp. But my controls C5BL6 maintained at the expensive animal house of UCM Univ. with all filters etc according to law: had 3,9 years of longevity! My controls outlived their “increased longevirty mice” by 1,6 years!

            So, my 3rd criterium is to look at the longevity of the controls. It must be the one known for that strain. If it is much lower it means the experimental cionditions were bad (of course only a fan and the smell terrible at the allay wher students walk to classroom terrible difficuot t endure!.
            TTo mu such a badly done experiments do not demonstrate abything about agig rate. They are simply bringing back towards normal a lowered longevity (same problem as all C. elegans results; David Gershon warned us at Barcelona IABG European congress and 3 papers from hium by then at Exper. Gerontol mainly because this worm lives in the wild in the soil ¡at a pO2 of only 5 mmHg. But people oput it at the lab at 160 mmHg pO2 (32 fold higher pO2). Then it is no chance that C. elegans is the only animal known in which TOTAL cytosolic antioxidants increase uits longevity (both mean and maximum) by 10 fold! something that does not occur in other animals and in kmice not a sngle mont of increase in mlsp (some imncrease in. mean lsp possible, depends on the particular experiment). Of course the animal is so O2 toxicity-extressed at 160 mmHg of pO2 that antioxidants are so good to them that they live much longer..
            Gershon also warned that ASLL C. elegans from all labs in the world come from a single original lab., his lab at Israel in the 1955. Therefore all the used elegans have a storngly diminished lsp due to many generations of inbreeding (like singenic mice comparaed to aswiss). Therefore thes animals ar similar to the mice with the fan only but for genetic reasong in this case (inbreeding depression

            In other words I think all experiments performed so far in the world with c. elegans suffer from these strong limitatios
            Now I will do experiments at Granada Univ. to see if lowering ndyfv2 gene expression (etc) increases or not mlsp. But I do not want to repeat the mistake above. I hope to convince Pepe Quiles, the PI at Granad that we do the experiments with C. elgans at its natural pO2 (5 to 10 mmHg pO”? I speak by memmory, mut chjeck) and if possible not use the standard elegans but try to obtain a new strain directly from the wild to start with. Real longevity of c. elegans at low natural pO2 on its soil and wild type strainm must be much longer than the one published by all authors untiol no¡w. Of course doing that will be more expensive, we will have to work at low pO2 (hypoc¡xic conditions which complicate a lot the handling of anim,als etc and it will take us much longer (various months) to demonstrate anything
            But I prefer to do thigs well done,.. I tried hard all my life to work that way. Otherwise you cheat yourself the most stupid thing a scientist can do, and on top of it he cheats the rest worldwide, really dirrtty thing.

            sorry no time to correct the too many spelling typing mistakes I hope you understand my 3 points
            I leav now on tryp to another country with my wife. No more time. I will be back on tuesday
            have a good week end. I will had¡va a lot of fumn where I go, for sure!

          • Hormesis appears to be either beneficial or negative to an animal based on a high or low level of the process and whether or not it is temporary or unremitting, over time.

            Regarding exercise: Excessive stress-producing aerobic exercise or any excessive strenuous exercise can actually exacerbate aging due to the excessive release of cortisol:

            Some exercise in the “hormetic zone” appears to be anti-aging, but too much takes a human out of the “hormetic zone” and appears to be pro-aging.

            I once participated in a marathon and I felt somewhat ill and totally depleted afterward. I did not feel healthy as with lighter exercise sessions. Studies have show that Marathons are known to suppress the immune system for at least 48 hours afterward.

            Cortisol is released in high stress situations. At high levels it can block human growth hormone leading to brittle bones, thinning hair, wrinkles, loss of skin elasticity and collagen.

            It is already recognized that a smaller dose of a medicine or nutrient or hormone, may trigger in animals the opposite response to a very high dose.

    • Not too sure the bioavailability is that low for NAC. Cause it is used very successfully, in every emergency room around the world for Tylenol overdose. And it works mainly by replenishing Glutathione stores in the liver. And it is administered orally, not by IV.

      So if the bioavailability was so low, not sure it would be used globally in emergency situations.

    • Yes kunal
      Full Proffessors and friends of mineJose Viña, Juan Sastre, and Federico Pallardó have worked a lot on NAC during the 1990’s and first decade of 2000 at Faculties uf Pharmacy and Fac. Of Medicine in Valencia University.
      They privately commented to me that slthough NAC has good effects related to GSH (Pepe was pershaps the best researcher on GSH and specially on GSSG/GSH -much more dufficult to properly meaure- worldwide after Meister passed away) its therapeutic range is very small. It is like another wo edge sword (O2 is the best example). After s certeain level, not very high positive effects change to strongly negative ones. To the point thst Juan decided to stop his NAC research and went into the acute pancreatitis field….Juan is an excelent person. For him morality & ethics is something always above any self interest…I fully agree with this personal attitude. And if Science is about looking for truth, obtaining more grant resources can never justify to do or suggest others to do things that are not clean or that are bad for their health.
      I suggest you do not risk to take yourselves NAC levels that have not been scientifically well founded demonstrated that they are save for human beings.
      The same for any other supposedly anti-aging supplement including the only drug that it was demonstrated that increases maximum longevity in mammals: rapamycin (Harrison et al., & R. Miller, Nature, 2009).

      Gustavo

    • Cincernibg evidence that mRNA vaccine integrates inside nuclear DNA you can integrate all these papers to reach that most likely conclusion:

      References

      -1) Zhang et al…& Young and Jaenische .PNAS USA (2021) SARSA COV-2 mRNA INTEGRATES into.. the human genome. (excellent paper that Science could not critizice on methodological grounds. Young works at Whitehead Institute & Jaenische at MIT , both at CA, MA, USA.

      2) Stephanie Seneff & Greg Nigh MIT CA MA USA .Int. J. Vaccine Theory, Practice, and Research. Worse than the disease? Reviewing some possible unintended consecuences of the mRNA Vaccines against COVID-19

      3) Caro et al. …& Barja Mitochondrion (2010). (Insertions of mtDNA fragments increase with age in somatic tissues in rats.)

      4 ) Cheng and Ivessa (2010) (Integration paper in yeast during aging and demonstation that this causes higher aging rate than wild type).

      5) Martinez-Cisuelo et al. …& Barja . Exper. Gerontol. 2016. (increases of mtDNA fragments with age in mose somatic tissues in parallel to mitROSp -expected if they are cause and effect- and thir total or partial reversion by 7 weeks of encapsulated rapamycin dietary treatmen at same dose that increased longevity kn “Harrison et al…..& R. Miller Nature 2009).

      6) Barja G. Exper. Gerontol. (2019) “Towards a Unified Mechanistic Theory of aging. (I consider this my best article among the approx. 200 ones which I have published (nice IF, Many Q1) in my 41 years of research (most on Ros and mitochondria and aging). At the beggining of this article the mtDNA fragments insertion inside nuclear DNA issue is briefly reviewed including corresponding Fig. 1.

      7) Gonzalez-Sanchez and Puertas MJ. (2019 or 2020?) (review to conmemorate the centenary of the jornal Genome). MJ. Puertas and M. Gonzalez Sanchez did the FISH fluorescence microscope images and quantification of mtDNA fragments insertion into nDNA in the pioneering Caro et al. Mitochondrion 2010 paper.

      8) Kevaj Sing review (2017). Seminars on Cancer ¿and Aging? (2017). See Fig. 2 for all human chromosome arms affected by mtDNA fragments integration on all chromosome arms.

      9) Cheng X. and Ivessa A. EJCB (2012) ANOTHER paper on mitDNA fragments insertion in nDNA in yeast. EUROPEAN j. CELL BIOL 2012. I do not remember the journal name

      I am sorry if there is any innexactitude in these references. O am in travel abroad writing by memory.

      Andreas Ivessa was as enthusiastical as myself concerning the newly discovered mtDNA fragments insertion inside nDNA aging mechanism and we were ready to collaborate (NY-Madrid! Instead of to compete.

      However a couple of years ago Andreas told me that he was quiting the mtDNA fragments inserrtion issue. Althiugh I asked why he had taken that decision he did not gave me any answer on why so…
      I hope Andreas wss not menaced by powerful people as Josh told recently concernkng another person who hung on the web descriptoon on how vitamin D supplemmentation avoidd majority of virus induced deaths. Authorities at western governments censor this most important for the population information and ONLY want to promote vaccines including the most dangerous ones, the mRNA based o es.
      Gustavo

      • Thanks Gustavo. Considering that SARS-CoV-2 (and all its mutations) will be with us probably forever, one has to decide, if getting a very small amount of synthetic mRNA into a shoulder muscle is worse than getting infected with the real viral mRNA (which by the way has the ability to replicate inside your body for days before symptoms show up). And no, vitamin D, B vitamins, zinc, quercetin, vitamin C etc. will not make you immune to SARS-CoV-2, but if you healthy (and lucky), you might avoid ICU treatment. I’ve decided to get the jab, and until someone convinces me of a better and alternative, I’ll will get my second shot too.

  16. For evidence that mRNA can be eeteotranscribed inside tge bodt to small DNA frafments inside de cell nucleus which then get ubtegrated insude all chromosome arms corruptung the genes message just the same as it iccurs for the part of aging due to mitochondria,ROS cut mtDNA into mtDNA fragments which exit the mitochondria and go to the cell nucleus where theiy enter chromosomes during normal aging (simultaneusly and independently published by as Caro et al. in Spain and by Andreas Ivessa in New York city both at 2010) at the pericentromeric area and then leave it thanks to nondisjunction DNA repair and flaked by TEs (eg. LINE harboring also inverse trancriptase which is used in case of mRNA to retrotrascribe it back to small DNA pieces) and extend integrated in normal nDNA including especially the human genes (28 fold more than expected at random Zhang et al, 2021) to all chromosome arms! (Kevaj Singh review).
    The mid- and long term consecuences are accelerated aging (higher than normal) and increased incidence of all the degenerative diseases cancers, Alzheimer and Parkinson’s disease, type-II diabetes, autoinmune diseases, etc
    References to read that:

    -1) Zhang et al…& Young and Jaenische .PNAS USA (2021) SARSA COV-2 mRNA INTEGRATES into.. the human genome. (excellent paper that Science could not critizice on methodological grounds. Young works at Whitehead Institute & Jaenische at MIT , both at CA, MA, USA.

    2) Stephanie Seneff & Greg Nigh MIT CA MA USA .Int. J. Vaccine Theory, Practice, and Research. Worse than the disease? Reviewing some possible unintended consecuences of the mRNA Vaccines against COVID-19

    3) Caro et al. …& Barja Mitochondrion (2010). (Insertions of mtDNA fragments increase with age in somatic tissues in rats.)

    4 ) Cheng and Ivessa (2010) (Integration paper in yeast during aging and demonstation that this causes higher aging rate than wild type).

    5) Martinez-Cisuelo et al. …& Barja . Exper. Gerontol. 2016. (increases of mtDNA fragments with age in mose somatic tissues in parallel to mitROSp -expected if they are cause and effect- and thir total or partial reversion by 7 weeks of encapsulated rapamycin dietary treatmen at same dose that increased longevity kn “Harrison et al…..& R. Miller Nature 2009).

    6) Barja G. Exper. Gerontol. (2019) “Towards a Unified Mechanistic Theory of aging. (I consider this my best article among the approx. 200 ones which I have published (nice IF, Many Q1) in my 41 years of research (most on Ros and mitochondria and aging). At the beggining of this article the mtDNA fragments insertion inside nuclear DNA issue is briefly reviewed including corresponding Fig. 1.

    7) Gonzalez-Sanchez and Puertas MJ. (2019 or 2020?) (review to conmemorate the centenary of the jornal Genome). MJ. Puertas and M. Gonzalez Sanchez did the FISH fluorescence microscope images and quantification of mtDNA fragments insertion into nDNA in the pioneering Caro et al. Mitochondrion 2010 paper.

    I am sorry if there is any innexactitude in these references. O am in travel abroad writing by memory.

    Andreas Ivessa was as enthusiastical as myself concerning the newly discovered mtDNA fragments insertion inside nDNza aging mechanism and we were ready to collaborate (NY-Madrid! Instead of to compete.
    However a couple of years ago Andreas told me that he was quiting the mtDNA fragments inserrtion issue. Althiugh I asked why he had taken that decision he did not gave me any answer on why so…
    I hope Andreas wss not menaced by powerful people as Josh told recently concernkng another person who hung on the web descriptoon on how vitamin D supplemmentation avoidd majority of virus induced deaths. Authorities at western governments censor this most important for the population information and ONLY want to promote vaccines including the most dangerous ones, the mRNA based o es.
    Gustavo

  17. For evidence that mRNA can be retrotranscribed inside the body to small DNA fragments inside de cell nucleus which then get integrated inside all chromosome arms corrupting the genetic message just the same as it iccurs for the part of aging due to mitochondrial ROS that cut mtDNA into mtDNA fragments. These exit the mitochondria and go to the cell nucleus where they integrate in nuclear DNA (nDNA) entering all human chromosomes during normal aging (simultaneously and independently published by us, Caro et al. in Spain, and by Andreas Ivessa in New York city both at 2010) at the pericentromeric area and then leave it thanks to nondisjunction DNA repair and flaked by TEs (eg. LINE harboring also inverse trancriptase which is used in case of mRNA to retrotrascribe it back to small DNA pieces) and extend integrated in normal nDNA including especially the human genes (28 fold more than expected at random Zhang et al, 2021) to all chromosome arms! (Kevaj Singh review)..

    The mid- and long term consecuences are accelerated aging (higher than normal) and increased incidence of all the degenerative diseases cancers, Alzheimer and Parkinson’s disease, type-II diabetes, autoinmune diseases, etc

    References to read that:

    -1) Zhang et al…& Young and Jaenische .PNAS USA (2021) SARSA COV-2 mRNA INTEGRATES into.. the human genome. (excellent paper that Science could not critizice on methodological grounds. Young works at Whitehead Institute & Jaenische at MIT , both at CA, MA, USA.

    2) Stephanie Seneff & Greg Nigh MIT CA MA USA .Int. J. Vaccine Theory, Practice, and Research. Worse than the disease? Reviewing some possible unintended consecuences of the mRNA Vaccines against COVID-19

    3) Caro et al. …& Barja Mitochondrion (2010). (Insertions of mtDNA fragments increase with age in somatic tissues in rats.)

    4 ) Cheng and Ivessa (2010) (Integration paper in yeast during aging and demonstation that this causes higher aging rate than wild type).

    5) Martinez-Cisuelo et al. …& Barja . Exper. Gerontol. 2016. (increases of mtDNA fragments with age in mose somatic tissues in parallel to mitROSp -expected if they are cause and effect- and thir total or partial reversion by 7 weeks of encapsulated rapamycin dietary treatmen at same dose that increased longevity kn “Harrison et al…..& R. Miller Nature 2009).

    6) Barja G. Exper. Gerontol. (2019) “Towards a Unified Mechanistic Theory of aging. (I consider this my best article among the approx. 200 ones which I have published (nice IF, Many Q1) in my 41 years of research (most on Ros and mitochondria and aging). At the beggining of this article the mtDNA fragments insertion inside nuclear DNA issue is briefly reviewed including corresponding Fig. 1.

    7) Gonzalez-Sanchez and Puertas MJ. (2019 or 2020?) (review to conmemorate the centenary of the jornal Genome). MJ. Puertas and M. Gonzalez Sanchez did the FISH fluorescence microscope images and quantification of mtDNA fragments insertion into nDNA in the pioneering Caro et al. Mitochondrion 2010 paper.

    8) Kevaj Sing review (2017). Seminars on Cancer ¿and Aging? (2017). See Fig. 2 for all human chromosome arms affected by mtDNA fragments integration on all chromosome arms.

    9) Cheng X. and Ivessa A. EJCB (2012) ANOTHER paper on mitDNA fragments insertion in nDNA in yeast. EUROPEAN j. CELL BIOL 2012. I do not remember the journal name

    I am sorry if there is any innexactitude in these references. O am in travel abroad writing by memory.

    Andreas Ivessa was as enthusiastical as myself concerning the newly discovered mtDNA fragments insertion inside nDNA aging mechanism and we were ready to collaborate (NY-Madrid! Instead of to compete.

    However a couple of years ago Andreas told me that he was quiting the mtDNA fragments inserrtion issue. Althiugh I asked why he had taken that decision he did not gave me any answer on why so…
    I hope Andreas wss not menaced by powerful people as Josh told recently concernkng another person who hung on the web descriptoon on how vitamin D supplemmentation avoidd majority of virus induced deaths. Authorities at western governments censor this most important for the population information and ONLY want to promote vaccines including the most dangerous ones, the mRNA based o es.
    Gustavo

    • Gustavo, thank you for your communications, it is important to clarify how to improve the availability of supplements. Sinclair did the same in an interview when he clarified how to take resveratrol and NMN and how it should be kept cold. The quote was the most read thing in weeks on the net, no one had said anything until then and he made it clear, like you, simple and to the point.
      By the way, do you think the NMN or NR anti-aging approach is adequate?
      Best regards; un cordial saludo desde las pampas..
      Gonzalez V.

      • Gustavo Barja. Professor of Physiology (UCM Univ. Madrid, Spain) and Academic of RANF (The Royal National Spanish Academy of Pharmacy), and head of the LRGM Research Group composed by five Professors from Seville, Lleida & Madrid Universities on said:

        Sorry Angel, what do you mean by ” NMN or NR anti-aging approach”. (acronymes etc.)
        Sorry I did not have time to read all blog plus commentatries

        • Sorry Gustavo, I meant to say Nicotinamide Mononucleotide -NMN- and Nicotinamide Riboside -NR-, Thanks in advanced

          • Concerning NAD+there is the Sirtuin snd epigenetics histone deacetylation proposed antiaging mrchanism and I agree it can be..

            But there is snother obvious mechanism nobody talks about exceptfor me, because I am an expert in ETC mitochondrial ROS and aging.
            Here it is
            NAD is associated with Anti-Aging BUT PLEASE NOTE that if NAD+ Goes up the NADH/NAD+ ratio goes down and this is the main determinant of the degree of REDUCTION (forget about classical simple vulgar idea: ” oxidation = bad”?; in mitoch. It i exsctly the reverse because the more REDUCED WITH ELECTRONS a e-
            ETC Transporter is?, the more e- it gives to O2, and the more ROS are generated. And this is even more true since we have recently found that the CxI mitROS generator relevant for aging is FEsN1a (at NDUFV2 polypeptide; and possibly also NDUFV1 containing the flavin and the FEsN3 both supected ROS generators of CxI too. These 3 are forming a physical triangle just at the tip of the hydrophylic domain of CxI (see Fig4. And corresponding text in Mota-Martorell et al..
            Barja..Redox Biology (2020) as well tge derived review Pamplona & Barja FESBE J (2021)).
            Thus at high NAD+, LOW NADH/NAD+ ratio: lower degree of electronic reduction of the ROS generstor/s inside NDYFV1/2 POLYPEPTIDE/S at the tip of CxI: less mitROS production at CxI: less generation of mtDNA fragments: less mtDNA fragments inserted within nuclear (genomic) DNA at all chromosome arms of all human chromosomes espetially LESS (28 fold less? Zhang et al. PNAS USA 2021) at human genes and finally : LESS AGING RATE (less of the part of aging corresponding to the MITOCHONDRIAL CXI ROS dependent mechanism.
            That could also explain (in addition to siruin mechanism) why NAD+ is asociated with Anti-Aging effects and, obviously the reverse would occur at high NADH and high NADH/NAD+ ratios explaining (in part?) why high NADH is associated with Pro-Aging outcomes.
            What do you think of my explanaton?

    • Gracias Gustavo, I have to make a conceptual map to follow you, what a cascade of relationships and concepts! Well for questioning the simplicity of oxidation equals damage, it’s like saying that all salts are salty -old joke.
      Isn’t 6,000 IU of vitamin E a high value? Best regards

  18. 1. I hope that I can find both NAC and Glycine here in Costa Rica where I live now.
    2. I’ve heard that without activating glutathione with some form of hormetic stress, you don’t really benefit from increasing its levels. Sulforaphane and exercise are two ways to do this.

  19. Gustavo Barja. Professor of Physiology (UCM Univ. Madrid, Spain) and Academic of RANF (The Royal National Spanish Academy of Pharmacy), and head of the LRGM Research Group composed by five Professors from Seville, Lleida & Madrid Universities on said:

    (SUBJECT: 1ST “HORMESIS” EXPERIMENT ON VERTEBRATE LONGEVITY?: BY THAT TIME I ONLY KNEW ABOUT MULTIPLE INDUCTION OF OZENS OF PROTECTIVE GENE PRODUCTS AFTER H2O2O TREATMENT PUBLISHED BEFORE US BY GABRIELLA STORZ IN BACTERIA, AND THAT OF COURSE DID NOT MEASURED ANY “LONGEVITY” JUST MEASURED INDUCTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS PLUS MANY OTHER PROTECTIVE SUBSTANCES.

    JOSH,
    PLEASE FIND HERE cited and linked THE FIRST OF VARIOUS OF OUR ARTICLES ON THE FROG EXPERIMENT IN 1988 (3 YEARS LONG COMPRESSING THE 6 YEARS LON LONGEVITY OF THESE RANA PEREZI ANIMALS). TREATMENT WITH CATALASE IRREVERSIBLE INHIBITOR INCREASED BY 100% MEAN LIFESPAN WITHOUT CHANGING AT ALL MAXIMUM LIFESPAN

    WE STUDIED 4 ORGANS AT 2 TIME POINTS. THIS IS JUST BRAIN AND ONLY AT MID EXPERIMENT. OUR FAC. OF BIOLOGY LIBRARY IS GETTING FOR ME THESE OLD PDFS WHICH I DO NOT HAVE ON PDF FORM (I STARTED TO HAVE THOSE PC-PDFS OF ALL OUR PUBLICATIONS AT 2000 ONLY)

    I THINK I ASKED THE LIBRARY FOR ONE OR TWO MORE. I WILL SEND THEM TO YOU WHEN THEY ARE GIVEN TO ME BY THE LIBRARY
    I think this is the best to read (end of experiment:

    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8375690/

    M. López-Torres, R. Pérez-Campo, C. Rojas, S. Cadenas, G. Barja de Quiroga. Free Rad. Biol. Med.15: 133-142, 1993. induction of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, GSH and ascorbate in liver and kidney correlates with survival throughout the life span.

  20. Gustavo Barja. Professor of Physiology (UCM Univ. Madrid, Spain) and Academic of RANF (The Royal National Spanish Academy of Pharmacy), and head of the LRGM Research Group composed by five Professors from Seville, Lleida & Madrid Universities on said:

    HELLO ALL.

    PLEASE SEE cited paper on a further new source (in addition to LINEs etc.) inside our bodies of transcriptase inverse (which is fundamental for huge problem to 1000 million injected mainly at the West! with mRNA-based vaccines). (Chinese use safe attenuated virus vaccines, and Russians adenovirus ones like J& J and Astrazeneca ones (neither of these have the potentially and most likely huge problem of the m-RNA based vaccines which are injected (look out!) inside liposomes (called euphemistically “nanoparticle lipids) in order to ensure it gets into the cell…so in the nucleus to through the multiple nuclear pores designed by 2,000 million years of evolution to let it pass, precisely, the mRNAy!

    DEAR JOSH ET AL.

    Please see now here below the link that Carlos Arnaiz (LRMG member) sends me with new information on transcriptase inverse due to Genome-embedded ribonucleotides arrest replicative DNA polymerases (Pols: “Pol0”) in addition to LINEs etc

    https://www.jefferson.edu/about/news-and-events/2021/6/discovery-shows-human-cells-can-write-rna-sequences-to-dna.html

  21. Gustavo Barja. Professor of Physiology (UCM Univ. Madrid, Spain) and Academic of RANF (The Royal National Spanish Academy of Pharmacy), and head of the LRGM Research Group composed by five Professors from Seville, Lleida & Madrid Universities on said:

    Josh and cols.,
    PLEASE SEE new PAPER:

    HARRIS P AND COLS., ANOTHER NEW COMER TO THE PROGRAM AGING BELIEVERS “RELIGION”, stopping adhering to the non-programed stochastic wear and theories of aging?:

    Treaster et al and Harris P Frontiers in Genetics (2021) Footprints in the Sand:
    Deep Taxonomic Comparisons in Vertebrate Genomics to Unveil the Genetic Programs of Human Longevity

    • Hi, I had the same exact issue. I posted some comments which didn’t appear and also I could not see other comments. As it turns out, I said nothing of consequence that everyone else didn’t say!

  22. Gustavo Barja. Professor of Physiology (UCM Univ. Madrid, Spain) and Academic of RANF (The Royal National Spanish Academy of Pharmacy), and head of the LRGM Research Group composed by five Professors from Seville, Lleida & Madrid Universities on said:

    OLE SAID: “one has to decide, if getting a very small amount of synthetic mRNA into a shoulder muscle is worse than getting infected with the real viral mRNA (which by the way has the ability to replicate inside your body for days before symptoms show up). And no, vitamin D, B vitamins, zinc, quercetin, vitamin C etc. will not make you immune to SARS-CoV-2,”

    I THINK YOU ARE WRONG OLE.

    Vitamin D is not really a vitamin but a hormone that changes gene expression of hundreds of genes.

    Vaccine tries to increase the inmunity of inmuno-depressed people due to vitamin D deficiency…so it is not possible to do that 100%, whereas vitamin D supplementation does correct by 100% such vitamin D-induced secondary inmuno-deficiency (it affects more than 50% of Spanish people oler than 65 years of age)

    I think vitamin D (plus vitamin K2 + Magnessium) appropriate supplementation (obviously not the ridiculous fake RDA) is more powerful against the coronavirus than the vaccines (95% effective but….at 3 weeks…and 47% effective at 6 months?) in old inmuno-deficient people due to vitamin D deficiency (and ¡it is that people that died majoritarily at least in Spain)

    Concerning young people, most are immune competent and do not need anything to get rid of coronavirus. That is why I consider extremely dangerous and non justified tom inject mRNA based vaccines to 12 years old children!

    Immune system is stronger than any vaccine. If you have a strong immune system you are protected not only against coronavirus but against hundreds of diseases. Therefore, given that efficacy has been already demonstrated last week at Hospital del Mar Barcelona in 930 patients, I consider “criminal by omission” not to use vitamin D supplementation IN THE OLD PEOPLE to fight coronavirus (because that omission is responsible for thousands of old people deaths). Why governments forgot about all kinds of treatments and are now priests of vaccine-only? Why in Spanish TV there is only a single thinking about covid treatment and the same five medical doctors (not scientists) appear in all TV chains, public or private
    Why after contacting various TVs they said they understand the relevance of my claims but they were afraid to be fIred if they invited scientists to tell ANYTHING ON TV DIFFERENT THAN THE SINGLE THINKING OF THE GOVERNMENT

    FINALLY, VITAMINS AND MINERALS ARE NATURAL PRODUCTS WITHOUT SIDE EFFECTS AT VARIANCE WITH SYNTHETIC DRUGS AND m-RNA based vaccines and..

    Why not use vitamin D + safe vaccines? Why any information on vitamin D as a good fight against covid-19 is forbidden in our TVs in Spain?

    Why they do not want to use BOTH vitamin D and the vaccines? They are not alternatives at all. They are fully compatible.! Then why they avoid vitamins since already one century? OnlY because being natural products they cannot be patented?
    So they reason they ban vitamin D is that they do not want to disturb BIG PHARMA?
    THEN WHERE IS DEMOCRACY IF BIG PHARMA HAS MORE POWER THAN OUR ELECTED GOVERNMENTS?

  23. Gustavo, I am fully aware of the power of vitamin D. In fact, my own critically low vitamin D status brought me onto my personal journey towards health and longevity more than a decade ago

    I can tell you several stories of people, with mild SARS-CoV-2 infections, who are still struggling with neurological symptoms like constant headache, loss of memory, concentration plus loss of smell and taste.

    These people had normal vitamin D status and were not hospitalized or feeling very sick with breathing difficulties etc. I’m sure most, if not all of them, would have preferred an mRNA vaccine, had it been available in march 2020.

    Even if everyone on the planet had adequate levels of vitamin D, Zinc vitamin C, B vitamins and vitamin K, you still have the problem with a huge group of elderly suffering immunosenescence

    You can’t just ask old people to treat themselves at home with ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine. They are prescription drugs and need careful monitoring of patients, which brings me back to the whole point, that no hospital in the world is scaled for a pandemic.

    Governments around the world had to look for ways to reduce hospitalization, and only a safe and effective vaccine would do just that. Forget about big pharma and other conspiracy theories and let’s get real.

    I agree that no-one can tell for sure, what is going to happen 5 or 10 years down the road with people, who are mRNA vaccinated (which btw includes myself). It’s a gamble, but so are the real viral infection and the traditional vaccines from AstraZeneca and J&J too.

    Elite athletes are always an interesting group to focus on, as even the slightest drop in performance will be noticed. I’ve been unable to find any evidence indicating that the mRNA vaccines causes vascular issues due to the spike protein. I’m quite sure that even an insignificant drop in VO2MAX would have been noticed. Readers, who can dig up more information, than I have been able to, are more than welcome to share it,

    • I do not agree with you Ole in almost all you said. Briefly:

      1) I spoke about 50% of Spanish people older than 65 years of age DO ARE vitamin D deficient. In these correcting the vD deficiency and thus their 2dary immunodefociency vith vitamin D will be much more efficient than ANY vaccine. But Big Pharma does not want vitamins and minerals from 100 years back simply because they cannot be patented and they cannot make profits like they do with their much more risky synthetic drugs. Ask the 40 bosses of Pharmacy (I eat with them from time to time). They do not take any drug from the pharmacy and they commonly discuss riubd the private table how much should one take of magnessium of vitamkn D of vitamin C etc. And most of these Academy of Pharmacy members die well past 90 years. They know well also that doses have been studied for adults and for children but not for the old…Do you know ho many old die each year due to paracetamol and its irrespinsible ignorance driven use promoted by ignorant Spanish doctors? Too many are recommending paracetamol just after Asteazeneca vaccine to “peevent coagulation”!!! ignoring that paracetamol, at variance with aspirin , is not anticoagulant!!! How do you explain such widespread functionsl medical analphabetism widespeead among spNish Drs. without recurring to the Huge Power and Abuse of Big Pharma?

      2) And why not use Vitamin D plus good va cines? The obssesion with vaccines ONLY denounces dirty poweeful ones…

      3) You said “medium and long term effects of mRNA vacines same as J & J and Astrazeneca”. But obviuosly not the same as one century old well known safe attenuated vaccines. The Chinese used them and are free and producing economy from covid in spite of being 1500 million people while the west has been stagnant last 10 months or more…
      4) You stated that “only safe & effective vaccines can decrease covid serious patients needing hospitalization etc”. That is FALSE as it has been recently demonstrated st Hospital del Mar Barcelona in a study of vitamin D treatment vs. Controls at covid ICU patients. Published and accepted as I already gave citation on Josh’s blog.

      I likely forget many other wrong subjects on your comment (I am speaking by memory)

      • Gustavo, you did not comment on my view regarding elite athletes and mRNA vaccines.

        Most, if not all, athletes have now been vaccinated for the Olympic games in Japan this year, and I have yet to find one single scientific paper, or even anecdotal evidence that the mRNA vaccines would cause similar vascular damages that have been observed from benign COVID19 infections.

        On the contrary, I’ve seen several studies with MRI scans from people with mild COVID19 infection, showing severe vascular damages to heart, lung and brain.

        • Gustavo Barja. Professor of Physiology (UCM Univ. Madrid, Spain) and Academic of RANF (The Royal National Spanish Academy of Pharmacy), and head of the LRGM Research Group composed by five Professors from Seville, Lleida & Madrid Universities on said:

          I mentioned mRNA being retro-transcribed to DNA fragments which insert/integrate in genomic DNA. The effects of this are expected to be accelerated aging (it is exactly the same mechanism by hwich mitROSp cause aging through nucleus), not acute changes including vascular ones you mention in athletes. Thus early cancer type II diabetes, Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s diseases are expected. No one will be able to prove thus cause-effect and mRNA vaccines Pharma Cos will be able to issue to the market their new 30 mRNA based drugs which will be approved based on mRNA being “proved” safe because it was given as vaccine to 1,000 million people or more..
          The final result will be corruption of the genetic constitution, likely for generations since the fragments also get into testicle and ovaries germinal line, of ONLY WESTERN people, whereas the Chinese will be essentially clean with their attenuated virus classical vaccines.

          If that wrong panorama really happens it will be a further example on how competition ONLYZÑ is an erroneous auto-destructive system. I know well from 41 years of teaching Comparative Animal Physiology that there are marvelous adaptations but all of them have side effects:. In other words: there is not advantage without disadvantage in nature. And human societies have repeatedly proved to be much more stupid than mother nature which has already 4,000 million years of experience while stupidly proud humans including capitalist (“ridiculously absurdly pretending to be “the end of history”-Fukuyima USA promoted) have just a century and some nanOsecond experience at evolutionary scale.. This includes of course simplistic ideas on feee market “invisible hand” myth (,Milton Friedmand’s) which lead to repeated cyclic crises and monopolistic concentration of Capital (rightly predicted by Karl Marx almost two centuries ago on his well based deep study of capitalism) unless
          REGULATED.

          All good trained economists know these truths although many conceal them to favor the greediness of their privileged patrons.

          • Gustavo Barja. Professor of Physiology (UCM Univ. Madrid, Spain) and Academic of RANF (The Royal National Spanish Academy of Pharmacy), and head of the LRGM Research Group composed by five Professors from Seville, Lleida & Madrid Universities on said:

            SARS-COV-2 has also the same: short mRNA so…?

            And most important. At least in my country (I have no idea at yours) the Law enforces that it is THEM, the selling Pharma Co. who should DEMONSTRATE beyond reasonable doubt that the drug they try to issue to the free market is not damaging for the citizens (and more so this time pretending worldwide vaccination since any error could cause an holocaust that will leave tiny what the Nazis did with their gas chambers and crematoRy ovens…), IT IS NOT ME WHO HAS TO DEMONSTRATE ANYTHING SO THIS DISCUSSION HAS NO SENSE GOPING ON.

            IF MY GOVERNMENT HAS DECIDED TO BREAK HIS OWN LAW IT WILL BE UNDER HIS SOLE RESPONSIBILITY…

            THE PROSPECT OF AMPLIFYING mRNA drugs to 30 more drugs waiting already in line at Pfizer and Moderna to make business (at the expenses of other non mRNA drugs already in the market) is another further example to me of how competitiveness can bring bad side effects including massive holocaust.
            I cannot “understand” how can they risk so much with so little evidence of safety, but the answer is always the same: at capitalist states the greediness and individual profit justifies damage to the social community always.

            That´s one more reason (plus intrinsic incompatibility with avoiding the Global Climate Change due to the need of capitalism to grow indefinitely, like cancer…) in my opinion classical (including savage neoliberal) capitalism has its days counted…same days likely as the few remaining days that the West Empire (in acute decay now) will continue to rule half the world and pass the torch to China.

          • So capitalism only has 1 century of experience, but Marx studied it in depth 2 centuries ago? I think you need to go back to the drawing board with your economic ideas. And the ‘fact’ of mtDNA integration in the genome being the cause of aging is also questionable IMO.

  24. Gustavo, I am fully aware of the power of vitamin D. In fact, my own critically low vitamin D status brought me onto my personal journey towards health and longevity more than a decade ago

    I can tell you many stories of people, with mild SARS-CoV-2 infections, who are still struggling with neurological symptoms like chronic headache, loss of memory, concentration plus loss of smell and taste.

    These persons had normal vitamin D status and were not hospitalized or feeling very sick with breathing difficulties etc. I’m sure most, if not all of them, would have preferred an mRNA vaccine, had it been available in march 2020.

    Even if everyone on the planet had adequate levels of vitamin D, Zinc vitamin C, B vitamins and vitamin K, you still have the problem with a huge group of elderly suffering immunosenescence

    You can’t just ask old people to treat themselves at home with ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine. They are prescription drugs and need careful monitoring of patients, which brings me back to the whole point, that no hospital in the world is scaled for a pandemic.

    Governments around the world had to look for ways to reduce hospitalization, and only a safe and effective vaccine would do just that. Forget about big pharma, conspiracy theories and let’s get real.

    I agree that no-one can tell for sure, what is going to happen 5 or 10 years down the road with people, who are mRNA vaccinated (which btw includes myself). It’s a gamble, but so are the traditional vaccines from AstraZeneca and J&J too.

    Elite athletes are always an interesting group to focus on, as even the slightest drop in performance will be noticed. I’ve been unable to find any evidence indicating that the mRNA vaccines causes vascular issues due to the spike protein.

    I’m quite sure that even an insignificant drop in VO2MAX would have been noticed. Readers, who can dig up more information, than I have been able to, are more than welcome to share

  25. Gustavo Barja. Professor of Physiology (UCM Univ. Madrid, Spain) and Academic of RANF (The Royal National Spanish Academy of Pharmacy), and head of the LRGM Research Group composed by five Professors from Seville, Lleida & Madrid Universities on said:

    1) You said that I said: “So capitalism only has 1 century of experience, but Marx studied it in depth 2 centuries ago? I think you need to go back to the drawing board with your economic ideas.”

    If I said 1 century it is of course a lapsus. Do not cling to a burning nail instead of really discussing the subject seriously. I find many of you the USrs too susceptible and dogmatic about your capitalist savage too individualist focused system. You do not resist even saying everything evolves, and of course your system will evolve too. End of history is just stupid egolatry.

    2. And the ‘fact’ of mtDNA integration in the genome being the cause of aging is also questionable IMO. I never pretend it is “the” cause of aging. ªJust one (main) relevant cause of aging among various ones (I dedicated a whole theoretical paper precisely to tell dogamtics that thee are various causes previously and erroneously called “theories of aging” or unconnected “hallmarks” Please see : “Barja G. Towards a unified mechanistic theory of Aging. Exper. Gerontol. 2019”. I suppose you did not see it since you pretend that I said there is only one cause of aging, be it mitROSp and derived mtDNA fragments or whatever..(I am sure of DBI of membrane FAs involvment too. These two are the one with more evidence between species (the “big effect”)

  26. I tried taking NAC for several reasons . 600 mg. I have the most horrible itching right now. Was up till 4:30 am. Exhausted. Stopped taking it today but still itching so badly, cannot sleep. Feel so disapointed I cannot take this “wonder” supplement. How does it take to leave my body? I am also allergic to cabbage and bactrim. Thought there might be a connection as NAC has sulphur or sulpha in it. Would welcome any thoughts on this, thank you.

  27. A disturbing item just published —
    “Dietary thiols accelerate aging of C. elegans”
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-24634-3
    Abstract:
    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular antioxidant. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely believed to promote aging and age-related diseases, and antioxidants can neutralize ROS, it follows that GSH and its precursor, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), are among the most popular dietary supplements. However, the long- term effects of GSH or NAC on healthy animals have not been thoroughly investigated. We employed C. elegans to demonstrate that chronic administration of GSH or NAC to young or aged animals perturbs global gene expression, inhibits skn-1-mediated transcription, and accelerates aging. In contrast, limiting the consumption of dietary thiols, including those naturally derived from the microbiota, extended lifespan. Pharmacological GSH restriction activates the unfolded protein response and increases proteotoxic stress resistance in worms and human cells. It is thus advantageous for healthy individuals to avoid excessive dietary antioxidants and, instead, rely on intrinsic GSH biosynthesis, which is fine-tuned to match the cellular redox status and to promote homeostatic ROS signaling.

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